Hindisaha Isdhexgalka Dhaqaalaha Gobolka (WQ: Bashir Maxamed Bashir)

Waxa aan helay qoraal iyo qorshe sir ah (wraf & proposal secret) oo ku sahabsan isdhexgalka dhaqaale ee gobolka Geeska Afrika, oo ay saxeexeen wasiiradda maaliyadaha waddamadu, iyada oo lagu saxeexay magaaladda Washington, Maraykanka xilligii lagu guda jiray kulankii sanadlaha “Annoul Meeting” ee Baanka Adduunka, oo dhacay 18 October 2019. Qorshaha oo la magac baxay Hindisaha Isdhexgalka Dhaqaalaha Gobolka “Regional Economic Integration Initiative” oo ku kacaya lacag dhan $15.89 Bilyan, $9 Bilyan oo kamida qorshahaa waxa lagu dhisayaa oo loo qoondeeyay jidadka ganacsiga gobolka (region corridors) ee isku xidhaya dekedaha, xuduudaha, magaalooyinka iyo dalalka. Tusaale Jidadka Isku xidhaya Isiolo-Moyale-Addis Ababa, Borama-Djibouti-Asab. Hindisaha mashruuca waxa maalgalinaya Baanka Hormarinta Afrika ADB, Midowga Yurub, iyo Baanka Adduunka.

80% xidhmooyinka ahmiyada koowaad (package initial priority) ee mashruuca waxa la siiyay dhisida kaabayaasha dhaqaalaha iyo dayactirkooda (jidadka, dekedaha, tamarta, tareenada, garoomada diyaaradaha iwm) gaar ahaan Somalia.

 

Hindisha isdhexgalka dhaqaalaha gobolku waa nidaam iyo hanaan wadajir looga wada shaqaynayo yaranta caqabadaha ganacsiga (minimizing trade barriers), kordhinta isu-gudubka ganacsiga xuduudaha (promote cross-border tade), dhisida kaabayaasha (building infrastructure), balaadhinta suuqa (expending market), tayayta ilaha waxsoosaarka (quantitative product sectors), hormarinta adeegyadda (developing service) iyo maalgalinta tooska ah (FDI) si loo gaadho koboc dhaqaale oo quwad leh. Qorshaha isku xidhka dhaqaalaha gobolku waa geedisocod isbedel (transformative process) oo u baahan wakhti badan (long time), barasho (learning), khayraad (resources), farsamo casriya (technology), wadashaqayn (comitative), siyaasad cad iyo xeerar sal u noqda isdhexgalka ganacsiga mandaqada.

Si loo gaadho isdhexgal qotodheer (deep integration) urur goboleedka IGAD waxa uu qabaa in loo baahan yahay (Soft and Hard Infrastructure) kuwaasi oo fududaydinaya isdhaafsiga dhaqaalaha (economic exchange) iyo isku tiirsanaanta (interdependence) gobolka. Si loo kordhiyo isku tiirsanaanta ganacsiga (interdependence trade) waxa hore u jiray heshiisyo laba geesoodyo (bilateral agreement) iyo kuwo dhinacyo badan ah (multilateral agreement) oo ay wada galeen wadamada xubnaha ka ah IGAD. Hindisahani waxa uu ka mid yahay mashruucyada waa weyn ee loogu diyaar garoobayo isku xidhka kaabayaasha dhaqaale ee gobolka. Gudaha dalalka waxa ka socda mashaariic waaweyn oo kabaya qulqulka dhaqaalaha iyo kaabayaasha ganacsiga.

 

Haddaba qorshaha hidisaha wasiiradu wada saxeexeen  waxa uu ka Kooban yahay afar tiir oo waaweyn;

1. Regional Infrastructure Networks

Isku xidhka kaabayaasha gobolka oo ay ku baxayso lacag dhan $12.5 Bilyan sida

B) Economic Corridor Jidadka Dhaqaalaha

T) Regional Energy Trade Tamarta Ganacsiga Tamarta Gobolka

J) Single Digital Market  Hal suuq oo casri ah

2. Promote Trade and Economic Integration kor u qaadida isdhexgalka ganacsiga iyo dhaqaalaha oo ay ku baxayso aduun dhan $0.5 Bilyan.

3. Strengthening Human Capital Development

Hormarinta awoodda dadka ee dhanka xirfada, waxbarashada, shaqo abuurka ee dhalinyarada iyo haweenka oo loo qoondeeyay $1.55 Bilyan.

4. Building Resilience Project

Mashruuca dhisida awoodda waxsoosaarka, beeraha, kalluunka iyo xoolaha oo ay ku baxayso $1.3 Biyan

Guud ahaan caalamka iyo qaarada waxa jira nidaamyo isdhexgal dhaqaale oo wadamada bogcad wada dagaa ay ku samaystaan iskaashi. Noocyadda isdhexgalka loo kala saaraana waa;

1. Preferential Trade Area 2. Free Trade Area3. Common Market 4. Custom Union

5. Economic Union 6. Monetary Union 7. Complete Economic Integrational

Preferential Trade Area: waa nidaam ganacsi oo mudnaanta la siinayo badeeco ama alaab gaara dalalka isdhexgalka dhaqaale u dhexeeyo sida iyada oo la dhimayo tacriifadii alaabta laakiin dalku isaga ayaa si madax baanan siyaasadiisa ganacsi u go’aaminaya. Nidaamkani waa habka ugu horeeya ee lagu bilaabo isku xidhka dhaqaalaha dowladaha. Tusaale  COMESA nidaamkani waxa uu jiraa Baariga iyo koonfurta Afirka, waxaana loo soo gaabshaa Common Market Eastern and Southern Africa.

Free Trade Area: waa nidaam ganacsi oo ganacsigu si xor iskaga kala gudbayo xuduudaha iyada oo gabi ahaan tirtiritaan lagu samaynayo kootada alaabta (free quota goods)  iyo badeecadaha oo cashuur dhaaf loo samaynayo ta soo galaysa (import) ama ta dhoofaysaba (export). Nidaamkani waxa kale oo la yidhaa Aaga Cashuurha Ka Caagan. Tusaale habkani waxa wada leh Waqooyiga Ameerika NAFTA ayaana magaciisa lagu soo koobaa.

Custom Union: waa nidaam ganacsi oo kastamyada midaynaya dalalka isbahaysiga ku jira, samaynayana cashuur isku mid ah taasi oo la saarayo tacriifad waddamada aan ku jirin isbahaysiga dhaqaalaha. Tusaale Midowga Yurub (European Union) waxa midaysan kastamyadooda.

Common Market waa nidaam ganacsi oo dowladaha isdhexgalka dhaqaale sameeyay ay si xora ay isku waydaarsanayaan dhaqdhaqaaqa alaabaha, adeega, shaqaalaha iyo hantida.

Economic Union waa nidaam isdhexgal dhaqaale oo meesha lagaga saarayo caqabadaha ganacsiga guud ahaan, si xora waxa iskugu gudbaya dhaqdhaqaaqa dadka iyo waxsoosaarka. Xubnaha wadamada ku bahooba isdhexgalku waxa ay iswaafajinayaa siyaasadda maaliyada iyo lacagta (harmonizing fiscal and monetary policies), waxaana la wada yeelanayaa hal guud oo lacag ah (common currency), iyo  maamul sare oo wada xukuma (supra-national authority) iskaashiga.

Caqabadaha Isdhexgalka Dhaqaalaha Geeska Afrika

 

1. Hay’ado tamar daran (Weak institution capacity).

2. Rabitaan la’aanta midowga madaxbanaanida sida Yurub (Unwillingness to Share sovereignty like EU).

3. Saboolnimo iyo Kala duwanaan la’aanta dhaqaalaha (Poverty and lack of diversification in economy).

4. Aad ugu tiirsanaanta badeecadaha la soo dhoofiyo (Highly dependent on exports of primary commodities).

5. kaabayaal diciif ah (poor infrastructure).

6. Khilaafaad amni oo gudaha gobolada iyo dowladaha dhexdooda ah (Security Inter-State and intra State conflict).

7. ku tiirsanaanta taageerada deeq bixiyayaasha (dependency on donor’s funds).

 

Xalka Caqabadaha Isdhexgalka

 

Dr. Hodan Ciise oo qayb ka ahayd fagaare Jabuuti lagu qabtay taasi oo lagu gorfaynayay isku xidhka dhaqaalaha waxa ay soo bandhigtay xalka caqabadaha isdhexgalka oo aan la qabaa qodobada hoose si uu u guulayso isdhexgalka  gobolku in loo baahan yahay arrimahan;

1. Political Consensus ‘Israacsanaan Siyaasadeed’

2. Trust Building “Kalsooni Dhiso”

3. Institutional Infrastructure Build “dhisida hay’adihii awooda fulinta  isdhexgalk lahaa”

4. Physical Infrastructure

5. Legal and Regulatory Infrastructure

6. Financial Institutions “Hay’adihii maaliyada”

7. Capacity Building “awood dhisid”

8. Communication (Isgaadhsiinta)

9. Informational Technology

10. Investing Productive Sector (maalgalinta ilaha waxsoosaarka)

11. Fiscal and Monetary Policy Union Midaynta siyaasadda maaliyadda iyo lacagta gobolka.

Saameynta isdhexgalka gobolka ee qulqulka ganacsiga (trade flow), maalgashiga, qoondaynta dhaqdhaqaaqa dhaqaalaha, kobaca, qeybinta dakhliga (income distribution) badanaa way adagtahay in la qiimeeyo, laakiin waxa lagama markaan ah oo loo baahan yahay siyaasado iyo hay’ado maareeya.

Soomaalidu sidee ayay uga qayb qaadan kartaa isku xidhka iyo isdhexgalka dhaqaalaha gobolka Bashii ahaan waxa aan soojeedinayaa;

1. In ay dhisaan saddex dekadood oo heer caalami ah tusaale ahaan.

2. In ay dhoofiyaan Kalluunka. 

3. In ay la wareegaan sugida amniga iyo ilaalinta bada cas iyo badweynta hidiya

4. In ay dhisaan goobaha dalxiiska.

 

 

WQ Bashir Maxamed Bashir

Borama, Awdal

Bashiirmaxamed653@gmail.com

0634538873/0634450487